Despite the plethora of languages spoken in the region by its inhabitants, the principality's official language was Greek.The earliest mention of the Crimean section of the Empire of Trebizond is made after the fall of Constantinople, by the historian Theodore Spanoudes who makes mention of the existence of a "Prince of Gothia" in the reign of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos (1328 - 1341).Other references make mention of events taking place in the fourteenth century.For example, some chroniclers identifying "Dmitry", one of the three Tartar princes who resisted the incursion of the Lithuanians into Ukraine at the epic Battle of Blue Waters, with a Prince of Gothia, who was tributary to the Emperor in Trebizond.It had its capital at Doros, also called Theodoro and now known by its Turkic name of Mangup, a city that formed a separate ecclesiastical Metropolis as early as the seventh century.
Alexios was then succeeded, by his son, who was given the Mongolian/Turkish name of Olubei.In 1465, a prince Isaac is mentioned, who in the face of the mounting Ottoman danger, engaged in a rapprochement with the Genoese at the nearby colony of Caffa and wed his sister Maria to Stephen the Great, ruler of Moldavia.However, his increasingly pro-Ottoman stance in the later years of his reign caused his brother Alexander to overthrow him.By necessity, it cultivated peaceful relations with the Mongolian Golden Horde to its north, paying them an annual tribute, but was in constant conflict with Genoese colonies to the south over access to the coasts and the trade that went through the Crimean harbours, culminating in a strip of the coastal land from Balaklava to Alushta, known to the Greeks as Parathalassia, falling under Genoese control, whereupon it was renamed as Captainship of Gothia.After the principality of Theodoro had lost harbours on the southern coast, it constructed a new port called Avlita at the mouth of the Chernaya River and fortified it with the fortress of Kalamita which is now known as Inkerman.
As a bridge between Europe and Asia, it formed an orientalist's paradise, inspiring writers as early as Cervantes to describe his hero Don Quixote as "imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond." French writer Rabelais, on the other hand, had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, declare: "I want also to be Emperor of Trebizond," while Rose Macaulay begins her classic the Towers of Trebizond with the immortal line: "Take my camel, dear." What is lesser known however, is that the Empire of Trebizond extended far beyond the borders of modern day northern Turkey all the way to Crimea, where the "Lordship of the city of Theodoro and the Maritime Region" (Αὐθεντία πόλεως Θεοδωροῦς καὶ παραθαλασσίας) formed an integral part of the Empire of Trebizond. Since times ancient, Greeks founded colonies in the Crimean region.